There are remains of a petrified hill fort on the outskirts of the village as well as remains of a Pictish fort. The site of a Roman camp is nearby in the the river valley. In the 7th century Celtic missionaries bringing Columba's message from Iona settled in Abernethy before Scone became the centre of religious life in the area with it's monasteries and religious houses. But perhaps the most notable event to take place in Abernethy occurred in 1072 when King Malcolm Canmore paid homage to William the Conqueror.
The parish church of St Brides, which sits on land given by Nechtan,a king of the Picts, is dedicated to Saint Brigid of Kildare of (fl. 451-525), and the church is said to have been founded by Dairlugdach, second abbess of Kildare, one of early Christian Ireland's major monasteries. Remains of the collegiate church survived until 1802 within the present village graveyard, when they were replaced by the present plain red sandstone church, which is still dedicated to St Bridget.
The earliest record of this name is that of an abbott of the Strathearn Monastery of Abernethy in Perthshire in the 12th century. His son was Orm de Abernethy, also an abbott who witnessed a Charter of William the Lion. There were Abernethies living in Upper Lauderdale in the 13th century. In 1399, John of Abrenethy, a knight of Scotland was given safe conduct in England as was George Abrnnete in 1465.