The 19th century saw whisky distilling, malting and woollen manufacture as the growing industries throughout the district. Later that same century historical Crieff was to become famous for the Hydropathic Establishment (Crieff Hydro)located on the south facing slopes of theKnock. The railway arrived in 1856, but alas it is no longer, closed in the 1960's by the Beecham cuts. Morrisons Academy was founded in 18598.
The townspeople were mainly Presbyterian and anti-Jacobite. The Lairds were mostly Catholic and Jacobite. Crieff was well-known for its pro-government sympathies - it was reported that of the total population only two people supported the Old Pretender (clearly an exaggeration but proof of the extent of feeling).Rob Roy MacGregor visited historical Crieff on many occasions, often to sell cattle. Apparently 'Rob Roy's outlaw son' was pursued through the streets of historical Crieff by soldiers and killed. An especially notable visitor was Bonnie Prince Charlie, who stayed in Crieff on his final journey to defeat at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.
In the second week of October 1714 the Highlanders gathered in Crieff for the October Tryst. By day Crieff was full of soldiers and government spies. Just after midnight, Rob Roy and his men marched to Crieff Town Square and rang the town bell. In front of the gathering crowd they sang Jacobite songs and drank a good many loyal toasts to their uncrowned King James VIII. In 1716, 350 returning Highlanders (having been narrowly defeated by the Duke of Argyle at the Battle of Sheriffmuir) burned most of Crieff to the ground in revenge.
In 1731, James Drummond, 3rd Duke of Perth, laid out the town's central James Square and established a textile industry with a flax factory. In the 1745 rising the Highlanders were itching to fire the town again and were reported as saying "she should be a bra toun gin she had anither sing". But it was saved by the Duke of Perth - a friend and supporter of Prince Charles (who presumably was worried about his factories). In February 1746 the Jacobite army was quartered in and around the town with Prince Charles Edward Stuart holding his final war council in the old Drummond Arms Inn in James Square - Located behind the present hotel in Hill Street. He also had his horse shod in the blacksmith's in King Street. Later in the month he reviewed his troops in front of Ferntower House, on what is today the Crieff Golf Course